According to the "Global New Energy Development Report", in 2013, China became the world leader in the field of new energy with a total annual investment of more than 61 billion US dollars in new energy and a total installed capacity of nearly 200GW of new energy power generation. On June 7th, the 8th China New Energy International Summit Forum with the theme of "Ecological Civilization and New Energy Revolution" opened in Beijing. Participants put forward suggestions on China's new energy development.
The era of large-scale replacement of traditional energy by new energy has come
Li Hejun, vice chairman of the All-China Federation of Industry and Commerce, member of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, chairman of the All-China New Energy Chamber of Commerce, chairman and CEO of Hanergy Holding Group Co., Ltd., said: I have four views on ecological civilization and new energy revolution. share. First, the core of every industrial revolution in human history is the energy revolution, and it will give birth to the rise of a great power. In the first industrial revolution, coal replaced firewood and promoted the rise of the United Kingdom. In the second industrial revolution, traditional petrochemical energy replaced coal on a large scale, driving the rise of the United States. Second, the core competition mode of new energy is completely opposite to that of traditional energy. In the era of traditional energy, as long as there was coal or oil fields, everyone went to war and scrambled for oil. For example, the Middle East war and the Iraq war were all for oil. The new energy is different, such as solar energy, it is the same for everyone, whoever has the core technology has the new energy. New energy can change the future energy pattern of mankind and even the geopolitical pattern. Therefore, the new energy revolution is very different from the previous two revolutions. Third, the era of large-scale replacement of traditional energy by new energy has arrived. Many friends and people in the industry believe that new energy is really good, but it is very far away from us, but it is not. For traditional energy, new energy is not a supplement but a replacement. It used to be a phased replacement. Now, new energy, especially represented by solar energy, will become the ultimate replacement. Fourth, new energy is the main path to realize ecological civilization. Without new energy, ecological civilization cannot be realized. I have been in the shopping mall for 20 years, and summed up a sentence, for the changes in the next one to two years, all of us will overestimate, it will always disappoint us, but the changes of more than five to ten years will always make We were pleasantly surprised, better than we thought. I believe that by 2035, global renewable energy will account for more than 50% of one-time energy consumption, and that day will be a milestone for new energy to replace traditional energy on a large scale.
Shi Yuanchun, academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, and former president of China Agricultural University [microblogging], said: New energy has always shouldered the mission of improving the energy structure and energy conservation and emission reduction in our country. In September 2013, the State Council issued the "Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan", in which stopping, cutting and reducing air pollution are effective measures to deal with air pollution, but it will also have some negative effects on the economy and employment. As an emerging strategic industry, new energy is an important force in the country's prevention and control of air pollution. It is equivalent to controlling from the source, without these negative problems, and can also provide a large number of jobs. This "Action Plan" presents challenges and responsibilities for new energy, and also gives new energy an opportunity, so we must seize this opportunity and share this responsibility.
Promote the development of new energy with financial, institutional and management innovations
Zhang Guobao, director of the National Energy Commission's Expert Advisory Committee, said: "I recently participated in a conference call where it was mentioned that an American company was using financial instruments to develop photovoltaics. We have infrastructure and subsidies for photovoltaic power stations, as well as power purchase contracts from grid companies after power generation. The former has high uncertainty and investors do not understand it, but the latter has a clear electricity price and term, and the cash flow is relatively stable. This financial tool separates the two, and uses a part of the stock market with relatively stable cash flow for financing to ensure that investors have a fixed return in the next few years. For investors, this financial instrument is as attractive as social security funds.
In late May this year, I went to Xinjiang to visit several renewable energy projects in Hami. Although the natural conditions in Hami area are harsh, it is indeed a good place to develop wind power and solar energy. There is a photovoltaic power generation industrial park in the local area, and the power generation capacity that has been connected to the grid is 600,000 kilowatts. There are a total of 21 investment and operation owners, including central and local state-owned enterprises such as Huaneng and Huadian, as well as private enterprises and foreign-funded enterprises. A comrade from Hami told me that the local enthusiasm for developing photovoltaic power generation is very high, and investors are also very enthusiastic. The biggest problem now encountered is that the photovoltaic power generation control indicators approved by the state are too few, and currently only 20,000 kilowatts are left for distribution. As far as this industrial park is concerned, the 21 investment and operation owners have a total quota of only 600,000 kilowatts, and the average quota allocated to each owner is only more than 20,000 kilowatts. They all want to expand their construction scale, but they can only Subject to state control indicators. In such a place rich in wind and solar resources, why should the state control the indicators? The reason is that photovoltaic power generation and wind power generation still need national electricity price subsidies, and the subsidy funds are limited, so the development scale is also limited. I have communicated with the pricing department of the National Development and Reform Commission. Before last year, we levied a renewable energy fund of 8% per kilowatt-hour of electricity. Now we charge a renewable energy fund of 1.5% per kilowatt-hour of electricity. In theory, the national renewable energy fund last year can be collected. To 54 billion yuan, but there are always cases where it cannot be collected, so the actual amount is a little less than the theoretical amount. This fund is collected and managed by the Ministry of Finance, and most of it is used to subsidize the difference between the price of wind power and solar power for grid companies that is higher than the price of local coal-fired thermal power. Taking Hami as an example, the on-grid electricity price of coal-fired power and thermal power is 0.25 yuan per kWh, while wind power is 0.58 yuan per kWh, requiring a subsidy of 0.33 yuan, and the state stipulates that solar power generation requires 0.9 yuan per kWh, requiring a subsidy of 0.65 yuan. Since the total amount of renewable energy funds collected each year is largely constant, except for a small increment. According to this mechanism, only the amount of funds allowed to generate as much electricity will make it difficult for renewable energy to develop significantly.
Therefore, in order to achieve great development of renewable energy, we need innovation not only in technology, but also in financial instrument innovation, institutional innovation and management innovation.
Zhang Guobao, director of the Expert Advisory Committee of the National Energy Commission, said: We should dialectically look at the issue of subsidies for new energy. If the government continues to hand out massive subsidies, the scale of renewable energy cannot be expanded. If subsidies can be reduced, from a macroeconomic point of view, the more subsidies, the smaller the power generation, and the less subsidies required, the greater the power generation. Therefore, short-term and long-term benefits must be weighed.
There are two examples from my own work experience where the right decision was made after weighing the short-term and long-term benefits. The first example is at the beginning of the development of Shanghai Pudong. At that time, there was a saying in Shanghai that we would rather have a bed in Puxi than a room in Pudong. Due to the inconvenient traffic in Pudong at that time, Shanghai decided to build Nanpu Bridge and Yangpu Bridge. According to the conventional thinking, the bridge needs a loan to build and repays the loan through tolls after construction, but if the bridge is tolled, not many people are willing to come to Pudong for development. After a heated debate, the city government decided that the two bridges would not be charged, and would use the comprehensive benefits of Pudong's development to repay the loan. Facts have proved that Pudong has developed rapidly, and its profits can be used to repay the loans for the two bridges. In the second example, Shanghai Xiaoyangshan Port was planning to build a 30-kilometer Donghai Bridge at sea and repay the loan by charging a certain fee for each container. But some people say that if you charge so much money every time you cross the bridge, why do other people's boats come to you, and you can unload them to Busan or Kaohsiung. In the end, the city government made a decision that the Donghai Bridge will not charge any tolls and will use the comprehensive benefits to repay the money. Such a mechanism has attracted a large number of containers to the big and small ocean ports, and now the number of local containers in a year has exceeded that of Hong Kong.
I talk about these two examples because I want PV investors to consider whether it is better to ask for more subsidies from the state, or to try to reduce costs. Wind power and solar energy have no fuel cost. The cost of renewable energy power generation is mainly composed of loan financial costs and equipment depreciation. Although it has been difficult to develop renewable energy in recent years, wind power investment can basically make money, mainly because investment costs continue to increase. decline. From the perspective of reducing the cost of wind power and solar energy, I think it is also possible to study which part of the subsidy is subsidized, such as targeted RRR reduction for wind power and solar energy loans, subsidized loans, extension of loan term and depreciation term, etc. to reduce financial costs, etc. It is not necessary to supplement the electricity price, this is the relationship between the so-called soft cost and hard cost.
Legislation and law enforcement are key issues in the development of new energy
Zhai Yong, director of the Law Office of the Environmental and Resource Protection Committee of the National People's Congress, said: "Our country does not lack manpower, energy, or funds in the development of new energy. There are two key issues, one is technology, the other is rules and regulations. order. China has now promulgated the "Renewable Energy Law", but there are still some problems with this law. First, the legislation for the implementation and implementation of renewable energy planning is incomplete and incomplete, many specific measures are not in place, and there is no clear provision for the guarantee method. Second, the existing laws are not clear about the division of responsibilities of various departments, which has a certain adverse impact on the efficient development of renewable energy. Third, the thinking and method of new energy legislation still needs further discussion. The new energy legislation has two concerns, one is efficiency and the other is against waste. Many countries emphasize efficiency when it comes to energy issues, while China attaches great importance to energy conservation, but just focusing on energy conservation will ignore the core efficiency issue and become an abstract concept of energy conservation. The phenomenon of energy waste in China is very serious. We should find problems from various factors and links involved in this, and then take measures to curb these problems. This is much better than simply emphasizing energy conservation. Fourth, the government's laws and regulations on finance and tax protection are not perfect. Now we do not spend the limited fiscal and taxation on the effective use of resources and the development of new energy, but on concepts, ideas, forms and models. For example, when we develop circular economy parks, we spend a lot of money on the model of the park and the upstream and downstream industrial chains, instead of focusing on resource recycling and efficient utilization. Fifth, the central government proposes to let the market play a decisive role in resource allocation. In the process of developing new energy, the legislative level should also improve how to effectively regulate market behavior.